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Ferdinand Lucas Bauer (1760 - 1826)

Fifty-two drawings of animals observed in Australia between 1801 and 1803 during the voyage of HMS Investigator, under the command of Captain Matthew Flinders

List of Bauer Zoological Drawings

As none of Bauer's zoological drawings are annotated the following notes are compiled from the published work of several researchers who have consulted Robert Brown's Investigator diaries and manuscripts as Bauer himself left none.

Pale-headed rosella
The two most important sources from which this list was compiled are Alwyne Wheeler and D.T. Moore, “The animal drawings of Ferdinand Bauer in the Natural History Museum, London”, Archives of Natural History, vol. 21, 1994, pp. 309-344 (abbreviated W&M in the references) and Peter Watts, Jo Anne Pomfrett and David Mabberley, “An Exquisite Eye. The Australian Flora & Fauna Drawings 1801-1820 of Ferdinand Bauer”, Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales, Glebe, 1997 (abbreviated W,P&M in the references). However, because in some instances the two sources have not used the same names it has been necessary to include, after each heading, the source for the name, either W&M or W,P&M. The list also differs from the list of drawings issued with the Alecto facsimile, Ferdinand Bauer's Natural History Drawings taken from the Zoological Specimens collected on the first circumnavigation of Australia by Matthew Flinders, Commander HMS Investigator, 1801-1803. Alecto Historical Editions, in association with The Natural History Museum, London, 1997. In compiling this list Australia's Animals Discovered by Peter Stanbury and Graeme Phipps, Pergamon, Rushcutter's Bay, NSW, 1980, was consulted - cited as S&P in the list. Also used were E. Troughton, Furred Animals of Australia, 3rd edition, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1946 - cited as T in the references, Axel Poignant, The Improbable Kangaroo and other Australian Animals, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1965, Neville W. Cayley, What Bird is that? 5th edition, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1968, and Graham Pizzey, A Separate Creation. Discovery of Wild Australia by Explorers and Naturalists, Croom Helm, London and Dover, New Hampshire, 1985. The most complete life of Ferdinand Bauer is Ferdinand Bauer. The Australian Natural History Drawings, by Marlene J. Norst, British Museum of Natural History, London, 1989. Also recommended reading is William Thomas Stearn's book, The Australian Flower Paintings of Ferdinand Bauer. Basilisk Press, London, 1976 and The Flora Graeca Story. Sibthorp, Bauer and Hawkins in the Levant, by H. Walter Lack with David J. Mabberley, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999. In the following notes, the present distribution of some birds and fish was obtained from Charles G. Sibley & Burt L. Monroe, Jr Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1990 and Alwyne Wheeler, Fishes of the World. An Illustrated Dictionary. Ferndale Editions, London, 1975.

The size of the paper is given for each drawing, taken from the reference cited in the heading unless stated otherwise. In all cases the measurements (in millimetres) are height x breadth

Water Rat.
Hydromys chrysogaster. E. Geoffroy, 1804. [W,P&M]
340 x 508 mm
We do not know precisely when or where in Australia Bauer saw this water rat but it was probably caught in one of its usual freshwater habitats. At the beginning of the nineteenth century the water rat was probably still common in Australia and Tasmania because in 1802 another specimen was captured on islands off Tasmania by French scientists on board the Géographe (under the command of Captain Nicolas Thomas Baudin). When the French expedition returned to France the natural history collections were deposited in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris where Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire was the first to name and describe the newly discovered animal. Today, the Australian water rat (which is not the same species as the European water rat) is less common than it was in Bauer's day.
T : 268-9; W&M : 315,333; W,P&M : 92-3

Water Rat.
Hydromys chrysogaster. E. Geoffroy, 1804. [W,P&M]
333 x 250 mm [NB: Wheeler & Moore measurements]
In this drawing of the water rat Bauer has depicted the underside of the head and different views of the feet to show details which cannot be seen in the previous painting.
W&M : 315

3. Western Barred Bandicoot.
Perameles bougainville Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 [W,P&M]
340 x 512 mm
Bauer has painted a pair of animals based on the specimen caught at Fowlers Bay, South Australia on 28-29 January 1802. In his diary Robert Brown has described how he went ashore at 5 am on 29 January 1802 and “Walked about a mile parallel to the beach. Found a few plants new but several out of season. On the whole this [is] the most barren spot we have seen. No water. Prints of naked feet [seen]. [Also] a few old spears & very recent prints of dogs feet uncommonly large. Caught a small quadruped genus unknown : but from a figure nearly resembling it from Port Jackson it or a very nearly allied species of the same genus [is] known there”.

Despite this bandicoot having been discovered by the English in 1802 it was two French zoologists, Jean René Constant Quoy and Joseph Paul Gaimard, who first named and described the animal in the scientific literature in 1824. They based their information on specimens collected by the French exploring expedition Uranie and Physicienne in 1817-1820 under the command of Louis Claude Desaules de Freycinet. Today the western barred bandicoot is no longer found on the Australian mainland and its distribution is restricted to the Bernier and Dorre Islands in Shark Bay, Western Australia .
T : 69; W&M : 315, 333; W,P&M : 58-9

4. Western Barred Bandicoot.
Perameles bougainville Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 [W,P&M]
340 x 251 mm [NB: Wheeler & Moore measurements]
In this drawing of the western barred bandicoot Bauer has depicted the underside of the head, a side view of the head to show the jaws and teeth, and details of the structure of the feet.
W&M : 315

Koala.
Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss, 1817) [W,P&M]
330 x 506 mm
Bauer made this painting of two koalas, an adult and a pup, captured by unknown persons at Hat Hill in New South Wales sometime between June and September 1803. This, and the following paintings of koalas, demonstrate Bauer's exquisite attention to detail and feeling for the animal's natural habits. Robert Brown made extensive manuscript notes about this then unfamiliar animal. It was about the same time that the first published account of the koala appeared in the Sydney Gazette for 21 August 1803 stating that an adult and two pups had been presented to Governor Phillip King.
Today, the koala has a wide but fragmented distribution in eastern Australian eucalyptus forests. In recent years the koala population has declined.
S&P : 26; W&M : 315,333; W,P&M : 134-5,138-9

Koala.
Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss, 1817) [W,P&M]
510 x 338 mm
Another view of the koalas shot at Hat Hill in New South Wales sometime between June and September 1803.
W&M : 316,334; W,P&M : 134-5; Norst:85

7. Koala.
Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss, 1817) [W,P&M]
511 x 340 [NB: Wheeler & Moore measurements]
A pair of koalas in a tree.
W&M : 316,334

8. Koala.
Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss, 1817) [W,P&M]
511 x 333 mm
This painting showing two views of the head of the koala was made from animals captured in Botany Bay and taken to Port Jackson where they were presented to the Governor in August 1803.
W&M : 316,334; W,P&M :140-1

9. Koala.
Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss, 1817) [W,P&M]
512 x 337 mm
The koalas shot at Hat Hill in 1803 have been dissected - probably by Robert Brown using his medical skills - to remove the skulls for Bauer to draw - as shown here. Also included are detailed drawings of the feet, the underside of the head and the teeth.
W&M : 316,334; W,P&M : 136-7

10. Wombat.
Vombatus ursinus (Shaw, 1800) [W,P&M]
337 x 510 mm
On 23 April 1802 during a visit to King Island in the Bass Strait Matthew Flinders shot two wombats - it is probably from these specimens that Bauer made this painting. In his own words Flinders described the shooting : “A boat was immediately hoisted out, and I landed with the botanical gentlemen. On stepping out of the boat, I shot one of those little bear-like quadrupeds, called Womat; and another was afterwards killed …” When the Flinder's expedition returned to England in 1805 a live wombat was taken back and it lived in captivity for two years with the anatomist Sir Everard Home. It was collected on the Kent Group of islands, perhaps in 1802.
Today, the wombat of Bass Strait survives only on Flinders Island.
W&M : 316,335; W,P&M : 72-3; Pizzey:20; Norst:32-3,63.

11. Wombat.
Vombatus ursinus (Shaw, 1800) [W,P&M]
512 x 336 mm [NB: Wheeler & Moore measurements]
Bauer's delightful detailed drawings of the head and feet of the wombat.
W&M : 316,335

Black-footed Rock-wallaby.
Petrogale lateralis hacketti (Gould, 1842) [W,P&M]
342 x 510mm
This wallaby was shot on Mondrain Island, Recherche Archipelago, Western Australia on 13 January 1802. A description of the island landing is given by Matthew Flinders : “On the 13th, the wind blew fresh from the eastward; and as we could not sail with the ship, lieutenant Fowler and Mr Thistle went over to Mondrain Island, the largest we had yet seen in the archipelago. An observation of the latitude and a set of angles were there taken, and they brought back some seals of a reddish fur, and a few small kanguroos of a species different from any I had before seen." The drawing represents the earliest record of this rock-wallaby as the original specimens have not been preserved. The sub-species is named after Sir John Winthrop Hackett who was Chairman of the Western Australian Museum Committee.
Today, the black-footed rock-wallaby is widespread in Australia but populations are in decline.
W&M :316-7; W,P&M : 50-1,52-3

Black-footed Rock-wallaby.
Petrogale lateralis hacketti (Gould, 1842) [W,P&M]
508 x 338 mm
Bauer has painted several detailed views of the head, feet, and jaws and dentition to aid identification of this rock-wallaby. It was killed on 13 January 1802 on Mondrain Island, Recherche Archipelago, Western Australia.
W&M : 317; W,P&M : 52-3;Norst:31

14. Platypus.
Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Shaw, 1799) [W,P&M]
335 x 510 mm
A platypus was captured at Port Jackson in July 1802 and September 1803. By then, however, the first preserved specimen had already reached England and been named by George Shaw of the British Museum in 1799. In Bauer's painting there is a frilly edge to the bill where it joins the body which is not normally present in the living animal. This effect is frequently observed in preserved skins in which the naturally soft, rubbery bill has shrunk and hardened presenting an unnatural frilly appearance.
Today, the platypus is found in eastern Australia and Tasmania.
S&P: 13-14; W&M : 317,336; W,P&M : 86-7;Poignant:”fig.73”

Platypus.
Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Shaw, 1799) [W,P&M]
508 x 337 mm
Bauer has drawn close-ups of the feet, bill and tail of the platypus, collected at Port Jackson in July 1802 and September 1803, probably as an aid to determining its true zoological affinities. Its webbed feet, presence of hair and egg-laying reproduction presented zoologists with problems when trying to establish its relationship to other animals and which were not solved until many years later. In this drawing the spurs, which are poisonous and only present on the hind feet of the males, are clearly shown. The aquatic habits of the platypus fascinated the settlers as much as visitors to the colony. Both Charles Darwin and John Gould, who visited the Colony in the 1830s, described them.
S&P: 13-14; W&M : 317,336; W,P&M : 86-89;Norst:73

Hooded Parakeet.
Psephotus dissimilis Collett, 1898 [W&M]
335 x 505 mm
There is no information to show when and where Bauer saw this bird. Today, its distribution is restricted to the Northern Territory. It lives in pairs or small flocks and feeds on grass-seeds. It nests in termite mounds where it excavates a burrow leading to a nesting-chamber.
W&M : 317-8,336;Cayley:157

17. Pale-headed Rosella.
Platycercus adscitus palliceps Lear, 1832 [W&M]
335 x 500 mm
It is likely this bird was seen when the Investigator stopped at Strong Tide Passage, Queensland in August 1802. It is interesting to see that it was not named officially until 1832 when the honour fell to the English poet and artist Edward Lear. This subspecies occurs today in southern Queensland and in New South Wales
W&M : 318, 337

18. Pale-headed Rosella.
Platycercus adscitus palliceps Lear, 1832 [W&M]
335 x 501 mm
This is the second painting Bauer drew of the bird, which was probably seen when the Investigator stopped at Strong Tide Passage, Queensland in August 1802.
W&M : 318,337

19. Eastern Rosella.
Platycercus eximius eximius (Shaw, 1792) [W&M]
335 x 502 mm
There is speculation about when and where this bird was seen by Bauer. It is likely it was somewhere in New South Wales. Today it is found in south-eastern Australia.
W&M : 318-9,337.

20. Eastern Rosella.
Platycercus eximius eximius (Shaw, 1792) [W&M]
505 x 335 mm
Bauer painted a second, more animated picture of this parrot. In this painting the bird is clearly enjoying something good to eat which is clasped in its claws. We do not know where Bauer saw the bird but it was probably somewhere in New South Wales.
W&M : 318-9,338

21. Northern, or Brown's, Rosella.
Platycercus venustus venustus (Kuhl, 1820) [W,P&M]
338 x 506 mm
This bird was shot at Caledon Bay, Arnhem Land, Northern Territory on 6 February 1803. A few days later, on 8 February, Matthew Flinders wrote in his diary of the hazards he encountered during the survey of the Australian coastline: “… A party of the gentlemen landed near the head of the bay, hoping to botanize without interruption; but a number of the natives had collected there, two of whom advanced, and sought to entice them into the wood by explaining how many animals might be there shot. The gentlemen were aware of the treachery, and soon thought it advisable to return to the boat; upon which the natives closed in upon them, with poised spears and every appearance of intended mischief. The pointing of muskets stopped their forwardness for a moment; but they came on again, and a shot was fired at each of the two foremost, which put them to flight, and they were not seen afterwards; but the gentlemen thought it unsafe to proceed in their occupation, and returned to the ship.“
Today, the Northern Rosella is only found in northern Australia.
W&M : 319-20, 338; W,P&M : 130-131;Norst :46,48

Port Lincoln Parrot or Australian Ringneck.
Barnardius zonarius zonarius (Shaw, 1805) [W,P&M]
503 x 330 mm [NB: Wheeler & Moore measurements]
This lovely bird was shot when the Investigator was moored at Memory Cove, South Australia, 22-23 February 1802. Robert Brown preserved the skin and took it back to England and presented it to the Linnean Society of London. When the Society closed down its museum the specimen was acquired by what is now The Natural History Museum in 1863. Memory Cove is so-called in memory of several crew of the Investigator who lost their lives at the place. They set out in a boat to look for fresh water and never returned: it is presumed they were eaten by sharks.
Today, the bird is common across the southern two-thirds of Australia and is a pest of wheat and fruit crops in some parts. In Western Australia large numbers are trapped for the cage-bird market.
W&M : 320,338; W,P&M : 64-65; Norst:29

Port Lincoln Parrot or Australian Ringneck.
Barnardius zonarius zonarius (Shaw, 1805) [W,P&M]
508 x 339 mm
A second painting by Bauer of this parrot from Memory Cove, South Australia shot around 22-23 February 1802.
W&M:320,339; W,P&M:64-5

Red-winged Parrot or Crimson-winged Parakeet.
Aprosmictus erythropterus (Gmelin, 1788) [W&M]
335 x 501 mm
Bauer has painted this bird perched on a branch with its wings raised, perhaps about to fly away, or to show its pretty colouring. It was caught on North Island in the Sir Edward Pellew Group, Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Territory on 18 December 1802.
Today, the Red-winged Parrot has a fragmented distribution across Australia.
W&M:320-1,339

Red-winged Parrot or Crimson-winged Parakeet.
Aprosmictus erythropterus (Gmelin, 1788) [W&M]
339 x 505 mm
This is Bauer's second painting of the Red-winged Parrot which was caught on North Island in the Edward Pellew Group, Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Territory on 18 December 1802.
W&M:321,339

Rainbow Lorikeet.
Trichoglossus haematodus moluccanus (Gmelin, 1788) [W,P&M]
340 x 510 mm
Bauer has painted a pair of these birds perched on a branch. By showing them in different postures he has been able to demonstrate the vivid colouration of the plumage of the underwing and ventral surface for which the species is renowned. Bauer has deliberately drawn the tongue protruding from one bird to show its unusual brush-like structure for the collection of nectar and pollen. The birds were shot at Port Phillip (the site of Melbourne) in Victoria on 30 April 1802 but the occasion was not without some anxious moments, as Matthew Flinders described in his diary: “… Three natives having made their appearance abreast of the boat, we again landed. They came to us without hesitation, received a shag and some trifling presents with pleasure, and parted with such of their arms as we wished to possess, without reluctance. They afterwards followed us along the shore; and when I shot another bird, which hovered over the boat, and held it up to them, they ran down to the water side and received it without expressing either surprise or distrust …” Today, Rainbow Lorikeets are found in South Australia, Tasmania, and eastern Australia. They live in flocks and often travel long distances seeking tree blossoms. They nest in holes in trees.
W&M:321,340; W,P&M:74-5; Cayley:170;Norst:81

Noisy Friarbird. Philemon corniculatus (Latham, 1790) [W,P&M]
508 x 337 mm
This bird was already well-known to the early settlers by the time Bauer arrived in Australia and named by the famous English ornithologist, John Latham, in 1790 from specimens sent back to England. The specimen painted by Bauer was shot on the northern Barrier Reef, Queensland, in October 1802. Today the Noisy Friarbird is still found in eastern Australia. It is a noisy, pugnacious bird which feeds on fruits, berries and nectar.
W&M:321-2,340; W,P&M:106-7; Cayley:96;Norst:50.

Southern Bell Frog.
Litoria raniformis (Keferstein, 1867) [W,P&M]
339 x 510 mm
It is thought the specimen Bauer painted was caught on Kangaroo Island in South Australia on 22 March 1802. The discovery of the frog was somewhat overshadowed by the enormous numbers of kangaroos present on the then un-named island - so Flinders called it “Kanguroo Island”! They were the first Europeans to set foot on the island and the kangaroos, unused to humans, were unafraid and easy prey. Flinders recorded in his diary for 22 March that thirty-one kangaroos were killed that day and provided enough protein to feed the ship's company for several days.
Today, the Southern Bell Frog is as an endangered species and is only found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
W&M:322-3,340;W,P&M:70-71;Pizzey:27

King's Skink.
Egernia kingii (Gray, 1838) [W,P&M]
340 x 500 mm
In this painting of a lizard killed at Seal Island, King George Sound, Western Australia on 22 December 1801. Bauer has introduced shadows to give the picture a three-dimensional aspect.
Today, the King's Skink is only found on the coast of south-western Western Australia and the islands off it.
W&M:323,341;W,P&M:38-9

Southern Pygmy Leatherjacket.
Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) [W,P&M]
340 x 508 mm
This fish was probably caught at Petrel Bay, St Francis Island, Nuyts Archipelago, South Australia on 4 February 1802. In his diary entry for this day, Matthew Flinders comments on the intense heat of the Australian summer :” …The great heat deterred the naturalists from going on shore this morning, for the very little variety in the vegetable productions presented no inducement to a repetition of their fatigue…”
Brachaluteres jacksonianus is common today in coastal waters from Western Australia to Queensland, including Tasmania.
W&M:323,341; W,P&M:60-61

Southern Pygmy Leatherjacket.
Brachaluteres jacksonianus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) [W,P&M]
110 x 180 mm [NB: Wheeler & Moore measurements]
A pencil drawing of the fish's head from several angles and scale details. The fish was probably caught at Petrel Bay, St Francis Island, Nuyts Archipelago, South Australia on 4 February 1802.
W&M:323

Boxfish.
Anoplocapros inermis (Temminck and Schlegel, 1850) [W&M]
336 x 503 mm
This fish is believed to have been caught at Thirsty Sound, Broad Sound, Queensland on 22 September 1802.
W&M:323-4,341

Boxfish.
Anoplocapros inermis (Temminck and Schlegel, 1850) [W&M]
112 x 182 mm
Pencil drawings of the fish's mouth from various angles to show detail and dentition. The fish is believed to have been caught at Thirsty Sound, Broad Sound, Queensland on 22 September 1802.
W&M:324

Spiny-tailed, or Brown's, Leatherjacket.
Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson, 1846) [W,P&M]
340 x 506 mm
Bauer's fish was caught at Princess Royal Harbour, King George Sound, Western Australia on 16 December 1801. Bauer has painted it from two angles - head on and from the side. Sir John Richardson was the first person to scientifically name and describe this species which he did from Bauer's painting as the specimen was not preserved. The fish is named after Robert Brown, the Investigator's scientist.
The fish occurs in southern Australian waters today.
W&M:324,341;W,P&M:36-7;Norst:37.

Spiny-tailed, or Brown's, Leatherjacket.
Acanthaluteres brownii (Richardson, 1846) [W,P&M]
182 x 110 mm [NB Wheeler & Moore's measurements]
Bauer's has drawn in pencil close-ups of the head and the scales of the fish, which was caught at Princess Royal Harbour, King George Sound, Western Australia on 16 December 1801.
W&M:324;W,P&M:36-7

Mudskipper.
Periophthalmus sp. [W&M]
385 x 505 mm
It has not been possible to identify this fish precisely beyond recognising it as a mudskipper, so named because of its ability to skip over stones on the shore. It is thought the specimen Bauer drew - from several angles to show the prominent pectoral fins which it uses to travel by leaps - was probably collected at Connor Creek, Keppel Bay, Queensland on 15 August 1802.
The mudskipper is a wide-ranging Indo-Pacific species.
W&M:324-5,342

Mudskipper.
Periophthalmus sp. [W&M]
111 x 183 mm
In this drawing Bauer has made several close-up studies of the mudskipper - pectoral fin, section through the body, pelvic fins. The mudskipper was probably collected from Connor Creek, Keppel Bay, Queensland on 15 August 1802.
W&M:324-5

Goby.
Favonigobius sp.[W&M]
335 x 501 mm
Bauer has drawn two views of this fish. Both its precise identification and provenance are indeterminate but it may have come from Keppel Bay, Queensland on 15 August 1802.
W&M:325,342

Goby.
Favonigobius sp.[W&M]
111 x 184 mm
Bauer has drawn close-ups of parts of the fish's anatomy but, despite this detail, it has not been possible to identify it beyond the genus or to determine where it was collected, although this may have been from Keppel Bay, Queensland on 15 August 1802.
W&M:325

Butterfly Cod.
Pterois sp. [W,P&M]
338 x 510 mm
It is not possible to identify this fish precisely because, although Bauer has drawn it beautifully, the number of scales on the body does not correspond with the scale count of either of the two fishes it closely resembles. The fish, which was probably collected at Strong Tide Passage, Queensland on 28 August 1802, belongs to a group commonly called firefishes which live in coral reefs of the tropical Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Their elongated spines can inflict painful wounds.
W&M:325,342;W,P&M:102-3

Old Wife.
Enoplosus armatus (White, 1790) [W,P&M]
339 x 511 mm
The habitat of the old wife is the coastal waters of southern Australia where it may live in large schools or as solitary individuals. The fish Bauer drew was caught in the Great Australian Bight on 24 January 1802. It got its common name - old wife - apparently from its habit of grinding its teeth when caught, said to resemble the grumblings of an old woman!
W&M:326,342; W,P&M:56-7

Old Wife.
Enoplosus armatus (White, 1790) [W,P&M]
181 x 110 mm [NB:Wheeler & Moore measurements]
Bauer has made a pencil drawing, with a trace of grey watercolour, of the head of the old wife caught in the Great Australian Bight on 24 January 1802.
W&M:326;W,P&M:56-7

43. Parrotfish.
Odax acroptilus (Richardson, 1846) [W&M]
332 x 502 mm
This painting by Bauer is important because Sir John Richardson based the first scientific description of the fish on this drawing as the specimen was not preserved. Unfortunately, no record now exists of where it was found and Richardson was only able to give the locality as “Coast of Australia”! Today, it is commonly found on the southern coasts of Australia.
W&M:326,343

44. Parrotfish.
Odax acroptilus (Richardson, 1846) [W&M]
112 x 181 mm
Bauer has drawn the head and details of the teeth in pencil. It is not known when or where the fish was taken but its current distribution is the southern coasts of Australia.
W&M:326

45. Rock Whiting.
Siphonognathus radiatus. (Quoy and Gaimard, 1835) [W&M]
336 x 502 mm
This fish is common in southern Australian waters but it has not been possible to identify where or when Bauer's fish was captured.
W&M:327,343

Flying Fish.
Exocoetus sp. [W&M]
335 x 502 mm
Flying fish are widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical seas and it is impossible to be certain where this particular fish was caught because no locality was recorded. In this painting Bauer has drawn two views of the fish, the upper one showing its elongated pectoral fins expanded and a second, lower painting with the pectoral fins folded. The enlarged pectoral fins enable the fish to “fly” in the air for considerable distances which it does to escape from predators.
W&M:327,343

47. Flying Fish.
Exocoetus sp. [W&M]
112 x 181 mm
Pencils drawings, with a trace of grey watercolour wash, of details of parts of the flying fish.
W&M:327

48. Weedy Seadragon.
Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède, 1804) [W,P&M]
337 x 505 mm
This fish was caught at King George Sound, Western Australia in December 1801. In this species the males incubate the eggs and, in this striking painting, Bauer has drawn one of the two fishes with a cluster of eggs under its tail. Today, the fish is found commonly in southern Australian coastal waters.
W&M:327,343;W,P&M:42-3

49. Blue Swimmer Crab.
Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1766) [W,P&M]
330 x 506 mm
No dates or localities have been located to pinpoint when and where Bauer drew this specimen of the blue swimmer crab as seen from above. Its distribution is widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific so it could have been captured from many different places. It is the most common edible crab in the world and in Australia it is fished commercially.
W&M:327-8,344;W,P&M:116-117;Norst: 62-3.

50. Blue Swimmer Crab.
Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1766) [W,P&M]
340 x 511 mm
Bauer's meticulous painting of the blue swimmer crab as seen from the underside shows its appendages in marvellous detail. There are no localities for this specimen, or date, indicated to show where Bauer's specimen came from but the species ranges throughout the Indo-Pacific region.
W&M:327-8,344; W,P&M:118-119

Blue Swimmer Crab.
Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1766) [W,P&M]
181 x 129 mm [NB. Wheeler & Moore measurements]
In this painting Bauer has contributed detailed views of the blue swimmer crab's mouthparts. It is not known from where Bauer's specimen came from but the species ranges throughout the Indo-Pacific region.
W&M:328

52. Spiny-backed Spider. Gasteracantha minax Thorell, 1859 [W&M - name corrected by P. Hillyard in1999].
504 x 337 mm
No provenance for this spider can be traced. Bauer has drawn both normal and melanic forms and dorsal and ventral views of each. The spider is widespread throughout Australia.
W&M:328,344.

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Audubon Birds | William Daniell - Voyage Round Great Britain | Ferdinand Bauer |